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Q.4 How is HIV transmitted ?
Ans. HIV can be transmitted through :-
  • Unprotected sex with an infected person.
  • Transfusion of infected blood or blood products.
  • Sharing of infected needles or syringes; and infected mother to her child during pregnancy, during birth or after delivery through breast milk.
  • These are the only four known routes of HIV transmission. This is because HIV is found in high concentration in blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk.
  • HIV does not spread through social contacts like: shaking hands, sharing equipment, eating from the same utensils, sharing toilets etc.
Q.5 HIV spread through mosquitoes.
  • No. Mosquito does not inject its own or previously bitten person’s blood into the next person.
  • Mosquito injects saliva, which acts as a lubricant so the insect can feed efficiently.
  • HIV is not found in the saliva of mosquitoes.
  • Diseases such as yellow fever and malaria are transmitted through the saliva of specific species of mosquitoes but not HIV.
  • In simple terms, mosquito does not become a carrier of HIV after biting an infected person. Therefore, mosquito does not transmit the HIV infection from person to person.
Q.6 Is there a risk of HIV infection is going to a barber’s shop. ?
  • There may be a possibility of risk in any situation in which skin piercing instruments are used, like in a barber’s shop, beauty saloons, tattooing, nose and ear piercing etc.
  • Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta recommends that instruments that are used to penetrate the skin should be used once then disposed off or thoroughly cleaned and sterilized.
Q.7 How can a person avoid being infected through sex ?
Ans. A person can avoid being infected by HIV through sex by:

A – By abstaining from sex : or
B – By having a faithful relationship with one partner (mutual faithfulness); or
C – By using condoms correctly and consistently.
  • Casual sex and sex with multiple partners is a high-risk behavior.
  • Anal penetrative sex has a higher risk Oral sex can also be risky.
  • Looking at a person you cannot know whether he/she is infected or not. So better avoid casual sex or use condom consistently and correctly.
  • Avoid sex under the influence of alcohol and drugs.
Q.8 Can kissing lead to HIV infection ?
  • Open mouth kissing is a low-risk activity as the concentration of HIV is very low in saliva.
  • HIV is not casually transmitted, so kissing on the cheek is very safe. Even if the other person has the virus, unbroken skin is a good barrier. No one has become infected from social contact such as dry kisses, hugs, and handshakes.
  • Prolonged open-mouth kissing could damage the mouth or lips and allow HIV to pass from an infected person to his/her partner(s).
  • Kissing in presence of bleeding gums or ulcers in mouth can be risky.